Android OpenCV(三十九):模板匹配

什么是模板匹配?

模板匹配是一种用于在较大图像中搜索和查找模板图像位置的方法。OpenCV提供matchTemplate()方法来实现模板匹配功能。模板匹配结果返回的是灰度图像,其中每个像素表示该像素的邻域与模板匹配程度。假设输入图像的大小(W * H),模板图像的大小为(w * h),则输出图像的大小将为(W - w + 1,H - h + 1)。获得结果后,可以使用minMaxLoc()方法查找最大/最小值位置,并将其作为矩形的左上角,以(w,h)作为矩形的宽度和高度来确定模板匹配到的区域。

模板匹配原理

在要检测的图像上,从左到右,从上到下遍历这一幅图像,从上到下计算模板与重叠子图像的像素匹配度,如果匹配的程度越大,这说明相同的可能性越大。只是这个匹配度的计算有讲究。

模板匹配原理

API

public static void matchTemplate(Mat image, Mat templ, Mat result, int method, Mat mask) 
  • 参数一:image,待匹配图像。必须是8位或者32位浮点图像。

  • 参数二:templ,模板图像,类型与输入图像一致,并且大小不能大于源图像。

  • 参数三:result,输出结果,必须是单通道32位浮点数,假设源图像W*H,模板图像w*h, 则结果必须为(W-w+1)*(H-h+1)的大小。

  • 参数四:method,匹配方式标志位。若为TM_SQDIFF或者TM_SQDIFF_NORMED,计算值越小,匹配度越高,剩下的几个标志位,计算值越大,匹配度越高。

    // C++: enum TemplateMatchModes
    public static final int
            TM_SQDIFF = 0,
            TM_SQDIFF_NORMED = 1,
            TM_CCORR = 2,
            TM_CCORR_NORMED = 3,
            TM_CCOEFF = 4,
            TM_CCOEFF_NORMED = 5;
    
  • 参数五:mask,可选掩码。必须和templ参数大小相同,要么和templ通道数相同,要么单通道。如果数据类型为#CV_8U,则将掩码解释为二进制掩码,表示仅使用掩码为非零的元素,并且权重与实际掩码值无关(一直等于1)。若数据类型为#CV_32F,掩码值将作为权重参与计算。

标记位


R ( x , y ) 为 结 果 矩 阵 , T ( x , , y , ) 为 模 板 矩 阵 , I ( x , y ) 为 源 图 像 矩 阵 R(x,y)为结果矩阵, T(x^,,y^, )为模板矩阵, I(x,y)为源图像矩阵 R(x,y)T(x,y,)I(x,y)

TM_SQDIFF

R ( x , y ) = ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( T ( x ′ , y ′ ) − I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ) 2 R(x,y)= \sum _{x',y'} (T(x',y')-I(x+x',y+y'))^2 R(x,y)=x,y(T(x,y)I(x+x,y+y))2

with mask:
R ( x , y ) = ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( ( T ( x ′ , y ′ ) − I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ) ⋅ M ( x ′ , y ′ ) ) 2 R(x,y)= \sum _{x',y'} \left( (T(x',y')-I(x+x',y+y')) \cdot M(x',y') \right)^2 R(x,y)=x,y((T(x,y)I(x+x,y+y))M(x,y))2

TM_SQDIFF_NORMED

R ( x , y ) = ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( T ( x ′ , y ′ ) − I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ) 2 ∑ x ′ , y ′ T ( x ′ , y ′ ) 2 ⋅ ∑ x ′ , y ′ I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) 2 R(x,y)= \frac{\sum_{x',y'} (T(x',y')-I(x+x',y+y'))^2}{\sqrt{\sum_{ x',y'}T(x',y')^2 \cdot \sum_{x',y'} I(x+x',y+y')^2}} R(x,y)=x,yT(x,y)2x,yI(x+x,y+y)2 x,y(T(x,y)I(x+x,y+y))2

with mask:
R ( x , y ) = ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( ( T ( x ′ , y ′ ) − I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ) ⋅ M ( x ′ , y ′ ) ) 2 ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( T ( x ′ , y ′ ) ⋅ M ( x ′ , y ′ ) ) 2 ⋅ ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ⋅ M ( x ′ , y ′ ) ) 2 R(x,y)= \frac{\sum _{x',y'} \left( (T(x',y')-I(x+x',y+y')) \cdot M(x',y') \right)^2}{\sqrt{\sum_{x',y'} \left( T(x',y') \cdot M(x',y') \right)^2 \cdot \sum_{x',y'} \left( I(x+x',y+y') \cdot M(x',y') \right)^2}} R(x,y)=x,y(T(x,y)M(x,y))2x,y(I(x+x,y+y)M(x,y))2 x,y((T(x,y)I(x+x,y+y))M(x,y))2

TM_CCORR

R ( x , y ) = ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( T ( x ′ , y ′ ) ⋅ I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ) R(x,y)= \sum _{x',y'} (T(x',y') \cdot I(x+x',y+y')) R(x,y)=x,y(T(x,y)I(x+x,y+y))

with mask:
R ( x , y ) = ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( T ( x ′ , y ′ ) ⋅ I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ⋅ M ( x ′ , y ′ ) 2 ) R(x,y)= \sum _{x',y'} (T(x',y') \cdot I(x+x',y+y') \cdot M(x',y') ^2) R(x,y)=x,y(T(x,y)I(x+x,y+y)M(x,y)2)

TM_CCORR_NORMED

R ( x , y ) = ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( T ( x ′ , y ′ ) ⋅ I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ) ∑ x ′ , y ′ T ( x ′ , y ′ ) 2 ⋅ ∑ x ′ , y ′ I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) 2 R(x,y)= \frac{\sum_{x',y'} (T(x',y') \cdot I(x+x',y+y'))}{\sqrt{ \sum_{x',y'}T(x',y')^2 \cdot \sum_{x',y'} I(x+x',y+y')^2}} R(x,y)=x,yT(x,y)2x,yI(x+x,y+y)2 x,y(T(x,y)I(x+x,y+y))

with mask:
R ( x , y ) = ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( T ( x ′ , y ′ ) ⋅ I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ⋅ M ( x ′ , y ′ ) 2 ) ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( T ( x ′ , y ′ ) ⋅ M ( x ′ , y ′ ) ) 2 ⋅ ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ⋅ M ( x ′ , y ′ ) ) 2 R(x,y)= \frac{\sum_{x',y'} (T(x',y') \cdot I(x+x',y+y') \cdot M(x',y')^2)}{\sqrt{\sum_{x',y'} \left( T(x',y') \cdot M(x',y') \right)^2 \cdot \sum_{x',y'} \left( I(x+x',y+y') \cdot M(x',y') \right)^2}} R(x,y)=x,y(T(x,y)M(x,y))2x,y(I(x+x,y+y)M(x,y))2 x,y(T(x,y)I(x+x,y+y)M(x,y)2)

TM_CCOEFF

R ( x , y ) = ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( T ′ ( x ′ , y ′ ) ⋅ I ′ ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ) R(x,y)= \sum _{x',y'} (T'(x',y') \cdot I'(x+x',y+y')) R(x,y)=x,y(T(x,y)I(x+x,y+y))

where
T ′ ( x ′ , y ′ ) = T ( x ′ , y ′ ) − 1 / ( w ⋅ h ) ⋅ ∑ x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ T ( x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ ) I ′ ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) = I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) − 1 / ( w ⋅ h ) ⋅ ∑ x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ I ( x + x ′ ′ , y + y ′ ′ ) \begin{array}{l} T'(x',y')=T(x',y') - 1/(w \cdot h) \cdot \sum _{ x'',y''} T(x'',y'') \\ I'(x+x',y+y')=I(x+x',y+y') - 1/(w \cdot h) \cdot \sum _{x'',y''} I(x+x'',y+y'') \end{array} T(x,y)=T(x,y)1/(wh)x,yT(x,y)I(x+x,y+y)=I(x+x,y+y)1/(wh)x,yI(x+x,y+y)
with mask:
T ′ ( x ′ , y ′ ) = M ( x ′ , y ′ ) ⋅ ( T ( x ′ , y ′ ) − 1 ∑ x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ M ( x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ ) ⋅ ∑ x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ ( T ( x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ ) ⋅ M ( x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ ) ) ) I ′ ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) = M ( x ′ , y ′ ) ⋅ ( I ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) − 1 ∑ x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ M ( x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ ) ⋅ ∑ x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ ( I ( x + x ′ ′ , y + y ′ ′ ) ⋅ M ( x ′ ′ , y ′ ′ ) ) ) \begin{array}{l} T'(x',y')=M(x',y') \cdot \left( T(x',y') - \frac{1}{\sum _{x'',y''} M(x'',y'')} \cdot \sum _{x'',y''} (T(x'',y'') \cdot M(x'',y'')) \right) \\ I'(x+x',y+y')=M(x',y') \cdot \left( I(x+x',y+y') - \frac{1}{\sum _{x'',y''} M(x'',y'')} \cdot \sum _{x'',y''} (I(x+x'',y+y'') \cdot M(x'',y'')) \right) \end{array} T(x,y)=M(x,y)(T(x,y)x,yM(x,y)1x,y(T(x,y)M(x,y)))I(x+x,y+y)=M(x,y)(I(x+x,y+y)x,yM(x,y)1x,y(I(x+x,y+y)M(x,y)))

TM_CCOEFF_NORMED

R ( x , y ) = ∑ x ′ , y ′ ( T ′ ( x ′ , y ′ ) ⋅ I ′ ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) ) ∑ x ′ , y ′ T ′ ( x ′ , y ′ ) 2 ⋅ ∑ x ′ , y ′ I ′ ( x + x ′ , y + y ′ ) 2 R(x,y)= \frac{ \sum_{x',y'} (T'(x',y') \cdot I'(x+x',y+y')) }{ \sqrt{\sum_{x',y'}T'(x',y')^2 \cdot \sum_{x',y'} I'(x+x',y+y')^2} } R(x,y)=x,yT(x,y)2x,yI(x+x,y+y)2 x,y(T(x,y)I(x+x,y+y))

操作

/**
 * 模板匹配
 * author: yidong
 * 2020/10/23
 */
class MatchTemplateActivity : AppCompatActivity() {

    private lateinit var mBinding: ActivityMatchTemplateBinding
    private lateinit var mRgb: Mat
    private lateinit var mTemplate: Mat
    private var method = Imgproc.TM_SQDIFF
        set(value) {
            field = value
            doMatch(field)
        }

    override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState)
        mBinding = DataBindingUtil.setContentView(this, R.layout.activity_match_template)
        title = "TM_SQDIFF"
        val bgr = Utils.loadResource(this, R.drawable.kobe)
        mRgb = Mat()
        mTemplate = Mat()
        Imgproc.cvtColor(bgr, mRgb, Imgproc.COLOR_BGR2RGB)
        val templateBgr = Utils.loadResource(this, R.drawable.kobe_template)
        Imgproc.cvtColor(templateBgr, mTemplate, Imgproc.COLOR_BGR2RGB)
        mBinding.ivLena.showMat(mTemplate)
        doMatch(Imgproc.TM_CCOEFF)
    }

    private fun doMatch(method: Int) {
        val tmp = mRgb.clone()
        val result = Mat()
        Imgproc.matchTemplate(mRgb, mTemplate, result, method)
        val minMaxLoc = Core.minMaxLoc(result)
        val topLeft = if (method == Imgproc.TM_SQDIFF || method == Imgproc.TM_SQDIFF_NORMED) {
            minMaxLoc.minLoc;
        } else {
            minMaxLoc.maxLoc;
        }
        val rect = Rect(topLeft, Size(mTemplate.cols().toDouble(), mTemplate.rows().toDouble()))
        Imgproc.rectangle(tmp, rect, Scalar(255.0, 0.0, 0.0), 4, Imgproc.LINE_8)
        mBinding.ivResult.showMat(mRgb)
        tmp.release()
    }

    override fun onCreateOptionsMenu(menu: Menu?): Boolean {
        menuInflater.inflate(R.menu.menu_match_template, menu)
        return true
    }

    override fun onOptionsItemSelected(item: MenuItem): Boolean {
        when (item.itemId) {
            R.id.match_tm_sqdiff -> {
                method = Imgproc.TM_SQDIFF
                title = "TM_SQDIFF"
            }
            R.id.match_tm_sqdiff_normed -> {
                method = Imgproc.TM_SQDIFF_NORMED
                title = "TM_SQDIFF_NORMED"
            }
            R.id.match_tm_ccoeff -> {
                method = Imgproc.TM_CCOEFF
                title = "TM_CCOEFF"
            }

            R.id.match_tm_ccoeff_normed -> {
                method = Imgproc.TM_CCOEFF_NORMED
                title = "TM_CCOEFF_NORMED"
            }
            R.id.match_tm_ccorr -> {
                method = Imgproc.TM_CCORR
                title = "TM_CCORR"
            }
            R.id.match_tm_ccorr_normed -> {
                method = Imgproc.TM_CCORR_NORMED
                title = "TM_CCORR_NORMED"
            }
        }
        return true
    }

    override fun onDestroy() {
        mTemplate.release()
        mRgb.release()
        super.onDestroy()
    }
}

结果

模板匹配结果

源码

https://github.com/onlyloveyd/LearningAndroidOpenCV

onlyloveyd CSDN认证博客专家 Android Kotlin OpenCV
个人公众号【OpenCV or Android】,热爱Android、Kotlin、Flutter和OpenCV。毕业于华中科技大学计算机专业,曾就职于华为武汉研究所。目前在三线小城市生活,专注技术与研发。
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